|Title||Miniaturized Stacked Transducer for Intravascular Sonothrombolysis with Internal-illumination Photoacoustic Imaging Guidance and Clot Characterization|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2023|
|Authors||H Wu, Y Tang, B Zhang, P Klippel, Y Jing, J Yao, and X Jiang|
|Journal||Ieee Transactions on Bio Medical Engineering|
Thromboembolism in blood vessels can lead to stroke or heart attack and even sudden death unless brought under control. Sonothrombolysis enhanced by ultrasound contrast agents has shown promising outcome on effective treatment of thromboembolism. Intravascular sonothrombolysis was also reported recently with a potential for effective and safe treatment of deep thrombosis. Despite the promising treatment results, the treatment efficiency for clinical application may not be optimized due to the lack of imaging guidance and clot characterization during the thrombolysis procedure. In this paper, a miniaturized transducer was designed to have an 8-layer PZT-5A stacked with an aperture size of 1.4 ×1.4 mm2 and assembled in a customized two-lumen 10-Fr catheter for intravascular sonothrombolysis. The treatment process was monitored with internal-illumination photoacoustic tomography (II-PAT), a hybrid imaging modality that combines the rich contrast of optical absorption and the deep penetration of ultrasound detection. With intravascular light delivery using a thin optical fiber integrated with the intravascular catheter, II-PAT overcomes the penetration depth limited by strong optical attenuation of tissue. <italic>In-vitro</italic> PAT-guided sonothrombolysis experiments were carried out with synthetic blood clots embedded in tissue phantom. Clot position, shape, stiffness, and oxygenation level can be estimated by II-PAT at clinically relevant depth of ten centimeters. Our findings have demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed PAT-guided intravascular sonothrombolysis with real-time feedback during the treatment process.
|Short Title||Ieee Transactions on Bio Medical Engineering|