Self-enhancing sono-inks enable deep-penetration acoustic volumetric printing.

TitleSelf-enhancing sono-inks enable deep-penetration acoustic volumetric printing.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsX Kuang, Q Rong, S Belal, T Vu, AM López López, N Wang, MO Arıcan, CE Garciamendez-Mijares, M Chen, J Yao, and YS Zhang
JournalScience (New York, N.Y.)
Start Page1148
Pagination1148 - 1155
Date Published12/2023

Volumetric printing, an emerging additive manufacturing technique, builds objects with enhanced printing speed and surface quality by forgoing the stepwise ink-renewal step. Existing volumetric printing techniques almost exclusively rely on light energy to trigger photopolymerization in transparent inks, limiting material choices and build sizes. We report a self-enhancing sonicated ink (or sono-ink) design and corresponding focused-ultrasound writing technique for deep-penetration acoustic volumetric printing (DAVP). We used experiments and acoustic modeling to study the frequency and scanning rate-dependent acoustic printing behaviors. DAVP achieves the key features of low acoustic streaming, rapid sonothermal polymerization, and large printing depth, enabling the printing of volumetric hydrogels and nanocomposites with various shapes regardless of their optical properties. DAVP also allows printing at centimeter depths through biological tissues, paving the way toward minimally invasive medicine.

Short TitleScience (New York, N.Y.)