|Title||The Effects of Scanning Speed and Standoff Distance of the Fiber on Dusting Efficiency during Short Pulse Holmium: YAG Laser Lithotripsy.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||J Chen, D Li, W Yu, Z Ma, C Li, G Xiang, Y Wu, J Yao, and P Zhong|
|Journal||Journal of Clinical Medicine|
To investigate the effects of fiber lateral scanning speed across the stone surface (vfiber) and fiber standoff distance (SD) on dusting efficiency during short pulse holmium (Ho): YAG laser lithotripsy (LL), pre-soaked BegoStone samples were treated in water using 0.2 J/20 Hz at SD of 0.10~0.50 mm with vfiber in the range of 0~10 mm/s. Bubble dynamics, pressure transients, and stone damage were analyzed. To differentiate photothermal ablation vs. cavitation damage, experiments were repeated in air, or in water with the fiber tip at 0.25 mm proximity from the ureteroscope end to mitigate cavitation damage. At SD = 0.10 mm, the maximum dusting efficiency was produced at vfiber = 3.5 mm/s, resulting in long (17.5 mm), shallow (0.15 mm), and narrow (0.4 mm) troughs. In contrast, at SD = 0.50 mm, the maximum efficiency was produced at vfiber = 0.5 mm/s, with much shorter (2.5 mm), yet deeper (0.35 mm) and wider (1.4 mm), troughs. With the ureteroscope end near the fiber tip, stone damage was significantly reduced in water compared to those produced without the ureteroscope. Under clinically relevant vfiber (1~3 mm/s), dusting at SD = 0.5 mm that promotes cavitation damage may leverage the higher frequency of the laser (e.g., 40 to 120 Hz) and, thus, significantly reduces the procedure time, compared to at SD = 0.1 mm that promotes photothermal ablation. Dusting efficiency during short pulse Ho: YAG LL may be substantially improved by utilizing an optimal combination of vfiber, SD, and frequency.
|Short Title||Journal of Clinical Medicine|